Senin, 09 April 2012

Revisiting the Four ‘Pillars of Learning’

Learning to know

This type of learning is radically different from ‘acquiring itemized codified information or factual
knowledge’, as often stressed in conventional curriculum and in ‘rote learning’. 
Learning to do

This pillar of learning implies in the first place for application of what learners have learned or known
into practices; it is closely linked to vocational-technical education and work skills training. However it
goes beyond narrowly defined skills development for ‘doing’ specific things or practical tasks in
traditional or industrial economies. The emerging knowledge-based economy is making human work
increasingly immaterial. ‘Learning to do’ calls for new types of skills, more behavioral than intellectual.
The material and the technology are becoming secondary to human qualities and interpersonal
Learning to live together (in harmony)

In the context of increasing globalization, the Delors Commission places a special emphasis on this
pillar of learning. It implies an education taking two complementary paths: on one level, discovery of
others and on another, experience of shared purposes throughout life. Specifically it implies the
development of such qualities as: knowledge and understanding of self and others; appreciation of the
diversity of the human race and an awareness of the similarities between, and the interdependence of, all
humans; empathy and cooperative social behavior in caring and sharing; respect of other people and
their cultures and value systems; capability of encountering others and resolving conflicts through
dialogue; and competency in working towards common objectives.

Learning to be (ownself)
 This type of learning was first conceptualized in the Report to UNESCO in 1972, Learning To Be (Edgar
Faure et al), out of the fear that ‘the world would be dehumanized as a result of technical change’. It was
based on the principle that ‘the aim of development is the complete fulfillment of man, in all the richness
of his personality, the complexity of his forms of expression and his various commitments – as
individual, member of a family and of a community, citizen and producer, inventor of techniques and
creative dreamer’. ‘Learning to be’ may therefore be interpreted in one way as learning to be human,
through acquisition of knowledge, skills and values conducive to personality development in its
intellectual, moral, cultural and physical dimensions. This implies a curriculum aiming at cultivating
qualities of imagination and creativity; acquiring universally shared human values; developing aspects
of a person’s potential: memory, reasoning, aesthetic sense, physical capacity and communication/social
skills; developing critical thinking and exercising independent judgment; and developing personal
commitment and responsibility.

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